Lewises were widely used as single and twin-mount guns on Allied observation and bomber aircraft. K; about two-thirds for aircraft use. Japan obtained license rights and built the Lewis as the Type 92 chambered in 7. Manufacture ended in after use by at least 30 nations. Your email address will not be published. Profile Data. In an effort to better serve you, our reader, and ensure a rich and relevant experience please help us by completing this Flight Journal interest profile.
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Sidebar Ads. Profile Form Profile Data. Show ad. Lewis guns were used extensively on British and French aircraft during the First World War, as either an observer's or gunner's weapon or an additional weapon to the more common Vickers. The Lewis's popularity as an aircraft machine gun was partly due to its low weight, the fact that it was air-cooled and that it used self-contained round drum magazines.
Because of this, the Lewis was first mounted on the Vickers F.
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The problem in mounting a Lewis to fire forward in most single-engined tractor configuration fighters was due to the open bolt firing cycle of the Lewis, which prevented it from being synchronized to fire directly forward through the propeller arc of such aircraft; only the unusual French SPAD S. A "pulpit plane" which possessed a unique hinged gunner's nacelle immediately ahead of the propeller and the pilot , and the British pusher fighters Vickers F.
Some British single-engined tractor fighters used a Foster mounting on the top wing to elevate a Lewis gun above the propeller arc for unsynchronized firing, including production S. For the use of observers or rear gunners, the Lewis was mounted on a Scarff ring , which allowed the gun to be rotated and elevated whilst supporting the gun's weight.
Until September Zeppelin airships were very difficult to attack successfully at high altitude, although this also made accurate bombing impossible. Britain developed new bullets, the Brock containing spontaneously igniting potassium chlorate ,  and the Buckingham filled with pyrophoric phosphorus ,  to set fire to the Zeppelin's hydrogen. These had become available by September On the French Nieuport 11 and later Nieuport 17 sesquiplanes , a Lewis gun was mounted above the top wing in a similar way as fitted to the British S.
The Foster mount usually incorporated an arc-shaped I-beam rail as its rearmost structural member, that a Lewis gun could be slid backwards and downwards along the rail towards the cockpit, to allow the ammunition drum to be changed in flight — but RFC fighter ace Albert Ball VC also understood that the Lewis gun in such a mount also retained its original trigger, and could thus be fired upwards.
He used the upward firing Lewis to attack solitary German two-seater aircraft from below and behind, where the observer could not see him or fire back. It was his use of the weapon in this way, in a Nieuport, that led to its later introduction on the S. The later Sopwith Dolphin , already armed with twin synchronized Vickers guns just forward of the pilot and just above its V-8 engine , could also use one or two Lewis guns mounted on the forward crossbar of its cabane structure, between the top wing panels, as an anti-Zeppelin measure.
A few of the Dolphins in use with No. Lewis guns were also carried as defensive guns on British airships. The SS class blimps carried one gun. The larger NS class blimps carried two or three guns in the control car and some were fitted with an additional gun and a gunner's position at the top of the gasbag. As an airborne weapon, the Lewis was largely supplanted by the Vickers K , a weapon that could achieve over twice the rate of fire of the Lewis.
In the crisis following the Fall of France, where a large part of the British Army's equipment had been lost up to and at Dunkirk, stocks of Lewis guns in both. It could be found on major warships, armed trawlers and defensively equipped merchant ships. It was often used in twin mountings and a quadruple mount was developed for motor torpedo boats. British submarines generally carried two guns on single mounts. Lewis guns were also carried by the Royal Air Force 's air-sea rescue launches.
American forces used the Lewis gun in. The US Navy used the weapon on armed merchant cruisers, small auxiliary ships, landing craft and submarines. The Germans used captured British Lewis guns during the war under the designation MG e ,  whilst the Japanese copied the Lewis design and employed it extensively during the war;  it was designated the Type 92 and chambered for a 7. The Lewis was officially withdrawn from British service in ,  but continued to be used by forces operating against the United Nations in the Korean War.
A commercial venture in by the Birmingham Small Arms Company was a version which fired the At around the same time, BSA developed the Light Infantry Model which had a round magazine and a wooden fore-stock in place of the radiator fins and shroud; it was intended to be used in a similar way to the Browning Automatic Rifle. Another development was a twin Lewis for aircraft use in which the bodies of the two weapons were joined side-by-side and the drum magazines were mounted vertically, one on each side.
None of these projects was accepted by any armed forces. Lewis had also experimented with lighter, calibre, box magazine-fed infantry rifle variants intended for shoulder or hip fire as a competition to the BAR. They were dubbed "Assault Phase Rifle" — what could be understood as the first use of the term "Assault Rifle", despite the weapon being, by today's designation, a battle rifle. Despite being three pounds lighter than it and loaded with very forward-thinking features for the time such as an ambidexterous magazine release , the U.
Army still chose to adopt the BAR. A short-barrelled light machine gun variant was developed at the start of the Second World War. It came with a hand guard and was fed from a round Bren magazines; however, it was decided by the British authorities to concentrate production on the Bren , which had the advantage of a changeable barrel. The German FG 42 paratrooper's rifle used the Lewis gun's gas assembly and bolt design which were in turn incorporated into the M60 machine gun.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Lewis Gun. Light machine gun.
American Rifleman. National Rifle Association. Small Arms Defense Journal. La Gazette des Armes in French. Men-at-Arms Archived from the original on 7 August Retrieved 12 February The Birth of Military Aviation: Britain, — The Boydell Press. Retrieved 27 November It remains in use as a front-line infantry and vehicle-mounted weapon with Russia's armed forces.
The PK has been exported extensively and produced in several other countries under license.
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In a machine gun prototype, developed by G. Nikitin and Yuri M. Sokolov, s. Between and , the Royal Aircraft Factory used the F. The third "F.
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Along with the single-seat D. Design and development The Farman Experimental 2 designation refers to three quite distinct designs — all pushers based on the general layout employed by the French aircraft designers, the Farman Brothers — but otherwise completely different aircraft. This "re-use" of the F. A semi or full-automatic firearm which is said to fire from a closed bolt is one where, when ready to fire, a round is in the chamber and the bolt and working parts are forward.
When the trigger is pulled, the firing pin or striker fires the round; the action is cycled by the energy of the shot, sending the bolt to the rear, which extracts and ejects the empty cartridge case; and the bolt goes forward, feeding a fresh round from the magazine into the chamber, ready for the next shot.
When World War I era machine guns were being tried for use on aircraft, the Lewis gun was found not to be usable with a gun synchronizer for forward firing through the propeller, due to its firing cycle starting with an open bolt. The sole F. The F. Armed with a single. Design and development Vickers began experimenting with the concept of an armed warplane designed to destroy other aircraft in The first resulting aircraft was the "Destroyer" later designated Vickers E. This aircraft was of the "Farman" pusher layout, to avoid the problem of firing through a tractor propeller, and was armed with a single belt-fed Vickers gun.
The Sopwith 5F. The Dolphin entered service on the Western Front in early and proved to be a formidable fighter.
Lewis Gun | Military Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia
The aircraft was not retained in the postwar inventory and was retired shortly after the war. Design and development Third prototype Third prototype at Brooklands Airfield In early , the Sopwith chief engineer, Herbert Smith, began designing a new fighter internal Sopwith designation 5F. Phil Lewis with Steve Riley and L. March He was born on 9 January in London, England. He has lived and worked in the U. Early work Lewis started the band Girl with guitarist Gerry Laffy in They put an ad in Melody Maker for a "peroxide guitar hero," and Phil Collen current guitarist of Def Leppard answered.
They were soon joined by drummer Dave Gaynor and bassist Mark Megary. Lewis's then girlfriend, Britt Ekland, was instrumental in helping Girl land their record deal. This is a list of machine guns and their variants. The tables are sortable. Three lineups of L.